the board you have a picture of seems to be nothing but a 5 to 3.3v powersupply and level converter for the esp-01 you would plug in. I’m thinking its designed for use with an Arduino and the ESP’s default AT command firmware. (And not flashing/stand alone use)
Most FTDI boards i’ve seen have 3.3v supply available, and the pins are 3.3v (but 5v tolerant). So you should be able to skip the board in its entirety, and connect the ftdi directly. Measure before you do, I read the esp is not 5v tolerant).
AFAIK there is only 1 pinout for the 8pin header on the esps. The modules with board edge connectors do vary.
My recommendation, if you have a 1M+ flash chip, connect your FTDI cable directly to the board, with the relevant pins to 3.3v and gnd to enable flashing. and flash it with a OTA compatible firmware. Then you won’t ever™ need the ftdi again. It won’t work with 512kb flash as you need room for your running sketch, and room to upload a new over wifi.
You’ll need to update the ESP8266 board definitions in the IDE, should update to 2.00. Then try this example:
I then proceeded to copy the includes, and functions from the code in this thread into the OTA example and it works fine.
Alternatively, you can use a breadboard and dupont wires to connect the adapter you have to the esp, and also wire in the sensor and needed pins for flashing. But the wifi/ota method is faster and easier once set up.
edit: found the page that covers OTA in more detail: https://github.com/esp8266/Arduino/blob/master/doc/ota_updates/ota_updates.md#application-example